Thursday, December 5, 2019

Accounting Software Is Used By Companies â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Questions: How Do Profit And Loss Statements, Cash Flow And Aging Summaries Contribute To New Budgets? How Does Analysis Of Previous Financial Data Impact On Projected Resource Estimates And Allocations? Answers: Introducation This is a methodology or accounting software that is used by companies to manage their assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Many companies are using financial management systems that help in streamlining their cash flows and improving the business performance (Bielefeld Schneider, 2014). Effective financial management systems like Sage, QuickBooks and Invent are being adopted by businesses so as to Elimination of errors in accounting and remove redundancy in record keeping. It provides the much needed flexibility in accounting and expandability in the same It ensures that there is compliance with regulations such as tax, deductions , rebates etc. of a company Financial management systems streamline collections and invoices. There are also two types of financial management system which are on-premises financial; system and the cloud financial system. However, there are various advantages of using the cloud system in financial management system. This includes It eliminates the costs involved in creation of accounting hardware costs and major headaches associated with IT. Some of the software updates will not disrupt the normal operation of the business The company staff or directors can get any information at any location at any time if the business is using software. There is integration to other applications like the sales force or revenue collection. For example, QuickBooks and Sage financial management system automates most important duties and processes of an accountant. They reduce a business overreliance on the spreadsheets. They also give clear and greater visibility into the real-time business activities and performances. The business should tailor their systems by configuring the screens, the workflows and the preferences all without scripting or coding (Bielefeld Schneider, 2014).They increase the ability of management to make faster decisions, increases the business productivity and drive the business to the next level. Productivity Due to improved Financial Management System if the business wants to optimize resources to the maximum, whether it's time management or team management, financial management systems have to be used. Personal productivity in the management of resources due to introduction of improved financial management system (Brigham Ehrhardt, 2017). In this article will know exactly what the productivity and benefits that one can report to your business, as well as the different ways in which we can exploit it. However, the efficient and quality implementation of all the tasks and tasks required to complete objectives and targets is not exclusively a matter of time and depends on many other factors that are directly related to productivity brought in by adoption of financial management system (Brigham Houston, n.d.). Throughout this article we will mainly talk about labor productivity, that is to say, that refers to the increase or decrease in performance depending on the variations of labor, capital, the technique that we apply to perf orm tasks or produce goods or other factors (AAT qualifications and credit framework (QCF) AQ2013, n.d.). However, it is necessary to make some points about productivity and other associated terms. The effectiveness is based on achieving the goals established in the company or individually.Efficiency is the achievement of goals with the least amount of resources (Brigham Houston, n.d.). In order to achieve good business productivity it is vital to start with a good business management, that is to say, the techniques that apply to the whole of a company with the aim of improving financial management, sustainability, competitiveness and to ensure the viability of the company medium and long term. Increased productivity also has many benefits for companies, regardless of size or sector of activity: It supposes a great saving of costs, since it allows us to get rid of those elements unnecessary for the accomplishment of our objectives It assumes a great saving of time, which gives us the possibility to perform a greater number of tasks in a shorter time and, generally, with less effort (COVENEY, 2016). This, in the long run, allows us to reserve that "extra time" for tasks that allow us to grow our business. It provides our business with greater agility and, therefore, flexibility in responding to changes in the demands of our customers or the market in general. Time Management and Productivity Time is one of the key factors when it comes to talk about financial management systems. Time is, in fact, one of the most relevant factors when it comes to efficiency and, hence, productivity, since it is one of the most valuable inputs or resources available to us. Of execution of task s supposes, as already mentioned, a significant cost savings, greater maneuverability and flexibility, and greater production capacity. Information Management System Organizations must have processes and procedures in place to ensure that information is protected and to demonstrate accountability to regulatory agencies and the public. Designed for the purpose of protecting assets, 2005 specifies requirements for management systems information security (Information Security Management Systems - ISMS). The requirements include the establishment, implementation, operation, monitoring, review, maintenance and improvement of systems documented ISMS within the context of global commercial risks of the organization (AAT qualifications and credit framework (QCF) AQ2013, n.d.). The standard, which stipulates specific requirements to include computer security under the control of the organization's management, can be applied to any business, organization or industry. What for many is known as Internal Management Control systems and for others simply Internal Control systems is an expression used to specify and detail all those measures that are taken by d irectors and shareholders of a company to control and direct effectively all the operations that your company plays (Penning, 2012). Generally, for a particular company it refers to what would be its internal control system. The techniques used to control all those resources and operations can vary from one to another company depending on the nature, complexity, magnitude, as well as the geographic dispersion of all the operations carried out by the company or entity. It is important to say that all these steps require some kind of concrete action, and the effectiveness of these steps will depend on all the employees who are directly responsible for carrying out a task and explain the reasons for the results obtained (Parker, 2007). The effectiveness of the management system process of the company at all levels of supervision will be the result of the efforts of the employees of the company. Importance of management accounting in the company In the present work we intend to address some fundamental concepts, which serve as the basis for the design of Management Control Systems, as well as different approaches used by recognized authors in the subject treated (Parker, 2007). How the three types of costs related to the financial are included in the budget: capital, risk mitigation and strategy execution financials. How improvements to the managerial accounting system not only provide accuracy and visibility to costs, but also allow prediction of expenditure requirements of the necessary resource capacity in the future.The standard, which stipulates specific requirements to include computer security under the control of the organization's management, can be applied to any business, organization or industry (Palepu, Healy Peek, 2016). Budgeting We understand by budget the set of expenses and inputs that a person, entity or government can foresee for a certain period in terms of their finances, the uses and objectives that will be given to each item or expenditure as well as the uses and Long-term forecasts of available funds (O'Herron, 2000). The idea of budget always supposes a forecast of the personal or state finances since to make a budget requires a certain anticipation not only of the expenses that must be realized in the determined time but also of the gains or inflows of capital that can mean period. In some cases, the budget is an element that can be set individually (for example, when a person analyzes their personal budget). In other cases, the budget implies an agreement between the parties if they are more than one (for example, when two or more people decide what to spend or if a government can use the available resources in such a way) (Nugus, 2009). As its name implies, the budget is precisely to presume in the matter of finance and economy what will be the activities or movements to be carried out in a future period that is calculated in an approximate way (Nice, 2002). Normally, when we talk about government or state budget, we are talking about budgets that are elaborated taking into account an endless number of variables related to the different economic activities of the region, the projects of works or of new measures of government, with the possible payment of debts or international fees, extra expenses and even the forecast of possible alterations to the original budget based on the results obtained with each of the projections indicated (Nice, 2002). Objectives of making a budgetroject.General characteristics: Budgets have the ability to predict future financial statements, based on estimates. According to the data bases, the budget may imply a high degree of uncertainty.The proposal is not accurate information that corresponds faithfully to reality, but should be used as an instrument that contributes to decision making (Lawrence Klimberg, 2011). The budget allows controlling the evolution of the company, contrasting the forecast with reality, to be able to analyze the deviations. Budgets allow access to the best option or at least the one that represents the greatest possibility of profitability for the company or investors (Lawrence Klimberg, 2011).The budget gives the possibility of projecting the expenses that are expected to incur in a certain period of time, as well as the income that will be generated during the course of the project. The budget is very important in that it represents the financial image of the project. The budget largely contributes to the understanding of the project by investors and provides security.Costs as a fundamental factor in the budget in financial management systehe budget should focus on detailing the cost presentation and analysis (Fraser Ormiston, 2016). For example, in cases where a budget includes a training activity, it should be explained in detail all the expenditures to be taken on the basis of the training, i.e. not only the value but also the cost of the value of time Invested by the people who are to be sent and who must assume the project because it is an operationally non-productive time, in addition to specifying if it requires materials or some value that should be considered for estimating the cost of training (Kemp, n.d.).The presentation of costs in a specific way allows investors and all users of the information contained in the budgets have a clear and comprehensive knowledge that provides reliability, as well as the possibility of looking for alternatives that minimize costs, since in case of Costs are shown as a general amount, denoted as a random calculation.One of the important elements of budgets is the ability to present project information in terms of cost-benefit, from which fundamental variables, including funding, should be assessed (Fraser Ormiston, 2016). The budget allows investors to assess the possibilities of financing and estab lish in terms of cost-benefit, the most profitable plan for the project.The budget is important for: Making financial information accessible to all users. For example, unions can access information from the organization, ie union members and all staff in general has the ability to access the budget and know the investment expectations of the organization.Ensure that the planning of activities is feasible and consistent with available resources.Identify the deficit in which greater movement of financial resources is required (Fraser Ormiston, 2016).Transparently establish the relationship between costs / receipts / invoices with the activities budget, in order to certify the reliability of the work and avoid that the resources are allocated to non-budgeted activities. Provide staff with cost tracking and budget balance. Grant the report to the funders, because the costs are related to the budget and toincrease the cost-benefit rat. A budget is an itemized summary of the expenses and incomes that are likely to occur in a given period. Typically, budgets are created using a spreadsheet, that provides an organized, concrete and easily understood breakdown of how much money a company will be receiving and how much it will be using. A budget is an invaluable tool that enables a company to prioritize spending and managing its money. A budget is necessary for a business because it enables the management to effectively manage money. It also enables a company to allocate appropriate resources to projects (Financial management, 2014). A budget is a tool that is also used to monitor performance of the projects that the company is undertaking in a specific financial year. A budget is also necessary as an tool that the management uses to make and improve decision making. It also enables one to identify problems before they occur, for example, the need to raise cash flow or finance difficulties. They enable a business to pla n for the future and also increase staff motivation (Feldstein, 2006). A budget is an integral part when running a business, they are used in the following way to run a business effectively and efficiently. A budget is used as an action plan for managers and also as a comparison point at the end of the period. In a business, a budget is used to determine how much to spend on the various expenditures of the business. The ability to measure performance of the business is a matter of life and death hence the way a budget is used can really determine if a business will do well or not. Estimates and allocations of resources are heavily impacted by the analysis of previous years financial data. For example, if the company performed poorly in the last financial year, then the allocations available and projected resource estimates will be reduced because of the fall in profits of the previous year. On the other hand, if the data of the previous financial years shows an improvement in profits then the resource estimates and allocations will be higher because there was more cash. For example, consider historical data from profit and loss account perspective in the last three years, the cost of sales is used to determine whether the gross margin is stable, if it is increasing or decreasing (Feldstein, 2006). When you tie your profit and loss account projection into a balance sheet forecast, then check the working capital and cash balance. These balances are then allocated into the budget (for example, general and administrative expenses) in a percentage form. One can use a profit and loss template for creating a projection or an estimate of how a business may perform from one year to another. The template is based on our budget and uses the same income and business expense categories. A profit and loss statement summarises the amounts of expenses incurred and the revenues earned by a business entity over a period of time (Dayanada, 2002). The main components of a profit and loss statement is the revenue, cost of goods sold, gross profit, expenses and net profit. The difference between a profit and loss projection and a business budget is subtle but important. After the profit and loss projection then one can change the title of the spreadsheet to budget. Cashflow The cash flow shows the outgoings and incomings of cash for an entity during a specified period of time. It is important to understand that the cash of a business is different from its profits. A business may be operating in profit but have a negative cash flow and therefore is not able to pay its debts. The cash flow is divided into three segments namely, investing activities, financing activities and operating activities (Dayanada, 2002). A budget can be made from cash flow forecasts which reflects the actual time that an expenditure and income are likely to occur such as details when money will enter a bank account and when it will leave. Non cash items such as depreciation and amortization are included in a cash flow and hence important in the making of budgets. Ageing summaries Accounts receivables are important this is because the help us know when a business will receive money or payment from the creditors. The analysis of ageing summary is important in budgeting because the budget is prepared by putting into mind when and how much a certain amount of money will be received from the various creditors (Donovan, 2006). Managing finances of any business is a complex operation. The application of financial statement knowledge in reporting and budgeting has a significant bearing on the success of the business (Donovan, 2006). For the survival of a business, good financial management is essential and an important part of good governance. This involves being in a position to review financial information , implement sound financial practices and understanding the companys financial obligations and position. Often businesses depending on how big they are appoint an expert in finance with some accounting experience to guide the company in regards to making financial decisions (Feldstein, 2006). Therefore, it is important that supervisors and managers in the organization understand budgets and their reporting requirements. The five basic skills that managers and supervisors of the organization should have are 1) cash versus accrual accounting 2) should be familiar with basic financial statements in terms of how they are prepared and also reporting 3) budget preparation i.e managers should know how to prepare departmental budgets 4) variance analysis and 5) financial analysis of capital investments and strategic initiatives. One way of ensuring that managers and supervisors in the organization understand the budget and reporting requirements is by involving them in the planning and management of finances. They should know the expenses accrued and revenues received in each department so as to be able to report and understand budgeting. Budgets are used to identify and track discrepancies between agreed and actual allocations. Explain. A budget is a plan or forecast in form of a list. These list shows incoming revenue and spending revenue items for a specific period of time (Feldstein, 2006). Thus, the purpose of spending is to show a budget figure for each item. And as time passes actual revenues and spending figures enter the list and are compare with original budget figures. The difference between the baseline or budgeted amount of expenses and the actual amount is known as the variance. Budget variance is favorable when the actual amount budgeted is greater that the budgeted amount. Or when the actual expense amount is less than the amount in the budget. In some rare cases, the difference between budgeted and actual assets and liabilities is known as budget variance. A budget variance is caused by improper budgeting or bad assumptions( for example a company using politics within to derive an unusually easy budget target) which means that the baseline against which the actual results are measured is not reasonab le. The organization can track this amounts by using either monthly or quarterly figures or actual expenses or revenues that are calculated using the receipts received during that particular period of time . These amounts are then compared with the amounts in the budget to identify if the variance is positive or negative. In real business world, small differences between budgeted figures and actual figures are expected and normal. However, a large variance might raise some eyebrows from the relevant officer tracking the difference . How do budgets contribute to analysis of existing financial management approaches? There are three main approaches to financial management, these are: First, the traditional view. Second, the modern view and third is the liquidity and profitability. Budgets contribute to the modern view approach of financial management. Financial management in the world has substantially changed in the world and budgets are increasingly being used in the analysis of financial statements(Brigham Ehrhardt, 2017).. In the modern view approach of financial management the budgets come in handy and are used by the management to analyze and compare with all other financial statements. Financial management and budgeting are at the core of economic and public sector reform programs in most countries around the world(Brigham Ehrhardt, 2017).. The growing pressure for an enhanced service delivery and the challenges brought about by fiscal shocks and budgetary crisis in the public sector has budgets have contributed to enhanced analysis of financial management approaches. References AAT qualifications and credit framework (QCF) AQ2013. Bielefeld, B., Schneider, R. (2014).Budgeting. Basel: Birkha?user. Brigham, E., Ehrhardt, M. (2017).Financial management. Boston (MA): Cengage Learning. Brigham, E., Houston, J.Fundamentals of financial management. COVENEY, M. (2016).Budgeting, forecasting and planning in uncertain times. [Place of publication not identified]: JOHN WILEY. Dayanada, D. (2002).Capital budgeting. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Donovan, S. (2006).Budgeting. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. Feldstein, M. (2006).The effects of the ageing European population on economic growth and budgets. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research. Financial management. (2014). London. Fraser, L., Ormiston, A. (2016).Understanding financial statements. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Fraser, L., Ormiston, A. (2016).Understanding financial statements. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Kemp, S.Budgeting for managers. Lawrence, K., Klimberg, R. (2011).Advances in business and management forecasting. Bingley: Emerald. Nice, D. (2002).Public budgeting. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson Learning. Nugus, S. (2009).Financial planning using Excel. Oxford: CIMA Pub. O'Herron, M. (2000).Variance in library media center budgets. Palepu, K., Healy, P., Peek, E. (2016).Business analysis and valuation. Andover, Hampshire, United Kingdom: Cengage Learning EMEA. Parker, R. (2007).Understanding company financial statements. London: Penguin. Penning, A. (2012).Budgeting. Osborne.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Social Media and Todays Hospitals

SOCIAL MEDIA AND TODAYS HOSPITALS By Michelle Perron When Facebook logged its first likes in 2004, no one was predicting that social networking would become a tool in the practice of medicine. Yet it has. From the revered Mayo Clinic to little-known regional specialty centers, the health care industry is finding that social media helps attract new appointments, generate revenue, and build relationships. Research published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research in 2014 shows that virtually all hospitals in the United States are now using social media in some way.1 This is not an overstatement: 94.4 percent of the 3,371 hospitals reviewed operated a Facebook page, and 50.82 percent had a Twitter account. This study found that private nonprofit and teaching hospitals, typically in large urban areas, are the highest users of social media. Its expertise in using socia Although individual physicians aren’t using social media at the same rate as hospitals, they are finding it useful. In fact, another 2014 study, this one by MedData Group, found that more than 50 percent of the physicians using social media for work purposes are engaging with peers, marketing the practice, or providing thought leadership for patients.2 Leading the Way The Mayo Clinic system is a recognized leader in health care industry use of social media.Tweet this Lee Aase, Mayo ClinicIts expertise in using social platforms to connect with patients and build business is so valued that other health care organizations lean on the Mayo Clinic Social Media Network (MCSMN; #Mayo Clinic SMN) for collaborative help. In partnership with Hootsuite, the MCSMN even developed a continuing medical education course to teach medical providers how to create an online presence.3 Lee Aase is the director of Mayo’s Social and Digital Innovation Team, which is staffed by eight media professionals who orchestrate the system’s posts on Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Pinterest, and You Tube. Activity on each outlet is unique, as shown below in the Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ feeds one afternoon in mid-January 2017. Each of the posts focuses on a particular subject area, ensuring a different experience for each media outlet user. The day’s topic selections can be influenced by the request of a Mayo department seeking more publicity (the sports medicine department in the Twitter feed), relevant national news stories (cervical cancer awareness month in the Google+ post), or the opening of a new hospital wing (the fifth floor of the Luther Building in the Facebook post). No matter the content decision, its goal is the same: to instill appreciation for Mayo Clinic and its resources. In an interview, Aase pointed out that today’s widespread use of social media by Mayo Clinic is in keeping with its history. â€Å"Our reputation was made through word of mouth,† he said, â€Å"and that is just as true today as it was 100-plus years ago. Patients would come to Mayo Clinic because a friend recommended us. Now, social media provides ways for people to share the same types of recommendations.† â€Å"Just Like Talking to a Patient† Perhaps the most vivid examples of such recommendations are found on the Mayo Clinic’s YouTube channel, which features videos capturing everything from a patient’s first reaction to his restored sight via a bionic eye to the precise symptom presentation of a baby with whooping cough. No doubt thousands of that video’s million-plus views were by frantic parents trying to determine whether their infant’s bark-like sounds warranted a trip to the local ER. One of the most powerful applications of Mayo Clinic’s YouTube channel is its line of videos for patients that feature staff physicians and other clinicians. These videos can offer information and encouragement to a patient trying to understand his or her rare diagnosis, reinforce the education provided during a complex office visit, or calm a patient’s unease before a surgical procedure by providing a step-by-step visual explanation of it. Take, for example, the diagnosis of ventricular tachycardia, a condition that causes the heart to beat faster than normal. It can be treated with medication, surgery, or both. To a patient receiving this diagnosis after experiencing rapid heart activity, the term alone sounds ominous. By directing a newly diagnosed patient to a YouTube video accessible in the comfort of home, Mayo Clinic can repeat the information presented at the treating physician’s office. The video presentation is likely to be better understood because it is more digestible. The Mayo Clinic’s YouTube channel features videos on ventricular tachycardia and many other topics. The educational application of social media is particularly appealing to busy physicians. They typically don’t have the time to prepare lengthy written material — but they’re more than happy to talk about what they know and what they can do for patients. â€Å"For many doctors, it all comes down to time. That’s where the capturing of video is so helpful,† Aase said. â€Å"We [the communications team] take care of everything. They are happy to share their expertise in a manner that is just like talking to a patient. â€Å"In the videos, we’re looking for them to say the things they say to patients several times a day, only to a broader audience,† Aase continued. â€Å"They’re demonstrating their expertise and showing empathy. We book a 15- to 30-minute timeframe and make them at ease. It’s a much more efficient use of time, and it is more impactful and genuine.† Mayo’s Social and Digital Innovation staff uses smartphones and consumer-grade cameras to shoot video, then edits and loads to appropriate channels. As physicians and other Mayo Clinic staff members have been exposed to the value of social media via these video sessions, more are requesting that the team help them â€Å"take control of their identity† on LinkedIn and Twitter, Aase said. He and his staff regularly coach interested physicians in how to beef up their profiles across platforms. Setting Ground Rules In an age when a Twitter rant can get you fired, it’s important for all employers to have clear policies for social media usage. This is especially true in the health care industry, where privacy of information is sacrosanct. The Mayo Clinic developed guidelines for employees’ social media activity, and many other hospitals have followed suit. The document boils down to common sense and the practice of established medical ethics. â€Å"The main thing is that they should stick to talking about what they know and what they do,† Aase said. â€Å"No one should practice medicine online. We advise them to elevate it out to general terms, such as ‘a patient with these symptoms may have this condition, and these are the standard options for treatment.’ This highlights their understanding and avoids looking like they are giving a prescription to a patient.† Smaller Markets Granted, most hospitals don’t have the size or patient reach of the Mayo Clinic. So what about hospital use of social media in smaller settings and markets? In a mid-sized or small city, the approach can be more streamlined and personal. The emphasis may also be on community relationships and trust more than branding on a large scale. Lafayette Surgical Specialty Hospital (LSSH) in Lafayette, La., is a surgery center owned by 34 physicians in various surgical specialties. The mid-sized city of Lafayette is a competitive market for health care services (nine freestanding hospitals for a population of 124,000), and LSSH distinguishes itself by creating a facility where health care meets hospitality. Liz Hebert is the director of marketing and business development for Lafayette Surgical Specialty Hospital. Since she was hired in January 2015, she has focused the facility’s social media outreach on Facebook, where she works to build a sense of trust. She automatically feeds the LSSH Facebook posts to the hospital’s Twitter feed. â€Å"I want to show people that we are involved in the community,† she said. â€Å"We use Facebook to inform the public about things we are involved in, and to show that we are a trusted resource for information.† As shown above, Hebert recently used the LSSH Facebook page to promote a community event she organized in conjunction with a new fitness facility. Anyone who saw the page was invited to a free class at a new indoor cycling facility near the hospital. One of the most effective uses of social media at LSSH is highlighting the community-oriented activities its staff is involved in, Hebert said. The hospital uses its social platforms to feature events like its â€Å"31 Days of Giving Back† campaign during the month of December that encouraged random acts of kindness and a spring scavenger hunt that raises money for the local United Way chapter. Other posts report on patient satisfaction surveys and honors received by staff members. â€Å"For me, the most important reason for our hospital to use social media is to develop a level of trust,† Hebert explained. â€Å"Even when you are confident in your choice of a surgeon and hospital, you’re still nervous. With our posts, and our day-to-day activities, we try to reduce those fears. We care about the community. We are dedicated to your care. Social media is one important way for us to get that across.† References Griffis HM, Kilaru AS, Werner RM, et al. Use of Social Media Across US Hospitals: Descriptive Analysis of Adoption and Utilization. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2014;16(11):1-11. Silas R. How Are Physicians Using Social Media? MDigital Citing work contained in the following report by Med Data Group: Mayo Clinic Social Media Network. Social for Healthcare Certificate from Mayo Clinic and Hootsuite.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Relationship between termites and aardvarks essays

The Relationship between termites and aardvarks essays One of the most specialized carnivores found on Boekenhoutkloof farm is the aardwolf which dines most exclusively on harvester termites, namely Trinervitermes This species is responsible for the fantastic "ant heaps" that are seen in the bushveld and consist of four different classes. They are workers, soldiers, kings queens and winged allates. The aardwolf targets mainly the workers because of their size and easy access when foraging. Therefore it is interesting to note that the aardwolf follows the same feeding patterns as the termite. The workers work mainly in the evening and the aardwolf is a nocturnal species. The aardwolf finds his or her quarry through smell .Once it finds the prey he laps up the working termites. The aardwolf obviously consumes a lot of sand and other objects. This is shown in their faeces which contain many foreign and indigestible Once the remaining workers have retreated to the mound, the soldiers viciously attack the aardwolf and squirt specially developed noxious , terpene based substances at the aardwolf. He then moves on to find more unsuspecting workers. It is easy to see the exoskeletons of the termites in the aardwolf's faeces. This is a good example of loss of energy through trophic levels. The worker termites harvest and dry out Russet grass for food. It has been estimated that a population removes about the same amount of grass as domestic livestock. The termites population in Boekenhout ensures the survival of the red data species of the aardwolf. Thus, these mammals are only present if the termite population is wide enough. ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Down's Syndrome Children Require Unique Intervention Strategies For Essay

Down's Syndrome Children Require Unique Intervention Strategies For Them To Progress In Education And Socially - Essay Example The disorder manifest themselves in both neuro-developmental and neuro-psychological arenas but the simplest observation remains that it causes developmental delays which can range from mild to moderate learning disability to severe mental disability. (Deliz, 2008) Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder which occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 births. Chromosome 21's presence in the affected, which contains 225 genes which contribute to the phenotype and pathogenesis of Down syndrome is referred to as the main cause of this distinct neurobiological, genetic, psychological, developmental and medical disorder. (Hattori, 2000) It is recognized that a very high proportion of brain anatomy and verbal intelligence is governed by genetic control. These findings greatly influence the study of Down Syndrome patients, their genes and their resulting speech, memory, language and other cognitive functions. (Capone, 2004). Research has also shown that children. affected by Down syndrome have decl ining Developmental and Intellectual quotients and thus have deficits in verbal and linguistic skills. Patients may also possess weak sequential auditory memory skills but they remain more adept at visual-spatial based memory tasks (Varnhagen, 1987) . Researchers have concluded that early intervention programmes benefit the socially adaptive function but do little to improve the cognitive function or IQ. (Gibson, 1988). There is no uniform cognitive benefit of early intervention if specific learning and intervention strategies are not used. There are multiple reasons provided for these findings. They include complex neuro-behavourial syndromes which often means that the intervention method chosen for learning is not working at its prime and increasing the frequency or the intensity of the same method will not provide results. Rather there is a need for different intervention strategies specific to their needs. (Gibson D. , 1991) This means that early intervention of the right kind a t the right time is required for a positive cognitive difference. A common example of this phenomenon can be observed when a child does not achieve spoken language skills and phonological competence despite attaining cognitive skills and other language comprehension skills which support complex skills. (Kumin, 2000)These are a sign the verbal intervention means have failed and calls for intervention strategies based on vision-based communication. This vision based communication uses signs and pictures to lead to symbol-based language development. It should however be remembered that increasing the intensity of phonology based therapies is also frequently met with poor results. Another visible delayed or aberrant function in Down syndrome is the pervasive developmental disorder. Children might suffer from developmental regression or social, communication or behavourial impairment. These children then require prompt referrals for medical and neuro-developmental assessment leading to t he establishment of a vision based system of communication. The normal assumption regarding early intervention plans for Down syndrome children is that they are extremely beneficial. In fact most of these early intervention programs are mandated by the state and are provided free of cost. This directly results in a Down syndrome child receiving physical therapy and early education in the first year of his life. (Capone, 2004) Occupational and speech therapy often follow the course in the second year of life. Parents and therapists often assume that the purpose of this early intervention is to speed the pace of development and the role of this early in